Hörst, Julian: Performance Analysis of Bearings-only Tracking Problems for Maneuvering Target and Heterogeneous Sensor Applications. - Bonn, 2018. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5n-52816
urn: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5n-52816,
author = {{Julian Hörst}},
title = {Performance Analysis of Bearings-only Tracking Problems for Maneuvering Target and Heterogeneous Sensor Applications},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2018,
month = dec,

note = {State estimation, i.e. determining the trajectory, of a maneuvering target from noisy measurements collected by a single or multiple passive sensors (e.g. passive sonar and radar) has wide civil and military applications, for example underwater surveillance, air defence, wireless communications, and self-protection of military vehicles. These passive sensors are listening to target emitted signals without emitting signals themselves which give them concealing properties. Tactical scenarios exists where the own position shall not be revealed, e.g. for tracking submarines with passive sonar or tracking an aerial target by means of electro-optic image sensors like infrared sensors. This estimation process is widely known as bearings-only tracking.
On the one hand, a challenge is the high degree of nonlinearity in the estimation process caused by the nonlinear relation of angular measurements to the Cartesian state. On the other hand, passive sensors cannot provide direct target location measurements, so bearings-only tracking suffers from poor target trajectory estimation accuracy due to marginal observability from sensor measurements. In order to achieve observability, that means to be able to estimate the complete target state, multiple passive sensor measurements must be fused. The measurements can be recorded spatially distributed by multiple dislocated sensor platforms or temporally distributed by a single, moving sensor platform. Furthermore, an extended case of bearings-only tracking is given if heterogeneous measurements from targets emitting different types of signals, are involved. With this, observability can also be achieved on a single, not necessarily moving platform.
In this work, a performance bound for complex motion models, i.e. piecewisely maneuvering targets with unknown maneuver change times, by means of bearings-only measurements from a single, moving sensor platform is derived and an efficient estimator is implemented and analyzed. Furthermore, an observability analysis is carried out for targets emitting acoustic and electromagnetic signals. Here, the different signal propagation velocities can be exploited to ensure observability on a single, not necessarily moving platform.
Based on the theoretical performance and observability analyses a distributed fusion system has been realized by means of heterogeneous sensors, which shall detect an event and localize a threat. This is performed by a microphone array to detect sound waves emitted by the threat as well as a radar detector that detects electromagnetic emissions from the threat. Since multiple platforms are involved to provide increased observability and also redundancy against possible breakdowns, a WiFi mobile ad hoc network is used for communications. In order to keep up the network in a breakdown OLSR (optimized link state routing) routing approach is employed.},

url = {http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11811/7679}

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