Skrobek, Anke: Investigations on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on whiteflies. - Bonn, 2001. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc:
author = {{Anke Skrobek}},
title = {Investigations on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on whiteflies},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2001,
note = {The entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is well-known for its broad host-spectrum and efficacy against many kinds of insects. Although its effectiveness against soil-borne arthropods has already been described over 100 years ago, Metarhizium anisopliae has only recently been cited as pathogenic to homopteran pests. In the present study different isolates of both microbial control agents were evaluated for their potential to control the whitefly species Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia argentifolii. Whiteflies are one of the most important arthropod pests of greenhouse and field crops, B. argentifolii occurring mostly in tropical and subtropical climates and T. vaporariorum being the pre-dominant species in Northern Europe. Many isolates of P. fumosoroseus and M. anisopliae, originating in different climatic regions, were found to be effective against all larval stages of both whitefly species.
For the integration of this biological control agent into crop protection systems, a possible synergism between the entomopathogens and insecticides from the group of the chitin synthesis inhibitors was investigated. Although fungi and insecticide acted synergistically when applied with a time interval, control of whiteflies was not sufficient for an effective, practical pest control. In contrast, corresponding investigations on Spodoptera littoralis, the Egyptian cotton leafworm, gave high mortality levels and thus offered good prospects for reducing the pesticide input.
Different oils, waxes and polymeric additives were examined for their ability to enhance the efficacy of the biological control agents. Two polymeric additives were found to increase the shelf-life at room temperature of conidia of M. anisopliae when conidia were dried within the formulation. Microscopical studies using fluorescence, low temperature scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscope indicated positive effects of Addit ® (Koppert, Netherlands) and a polymeric additive on the distribution of formulations -and hence conidia- on leaf and insect surfaces. Spore germination, speed of kill and mortality of the target insect were also found to be enhanced. Both additives offered good prospects for optimising the efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi against B. argentifolii and T. vaporariorum, thus indicating high potential for the integration in the framework of an IPM strategy},

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