Schoene, Philip: Ulocladium atrum as an antagonist of Grey Mould (Botrytis Cenerea) in Grapevine. - Bonn, 2003. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
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author = {{Philip Schoene}},
title = {Ulocladium atrum as an antagonist of Grey Mould (Botrytis Cenerea) in Grapevine},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2003,
note = {Plant diseases inhibiting cultivation of crops are typical of intensive agriculture and plant protection measures with frequent applications of pesticides are therefore required. Problems occur by using chemical pesticides: e.g. development of resistance to pesticides and side-effects on beneficials and the environment, which calls for new strategies of crop protection. Botrytis cinerea (Pers.), one of the main pathogens in grapevine, Vitis vinifera L., is capable of infecting leaves, stems, flowers and fruits and reduces quality and quantity of yield. The saprophytic hyphomycet Ulocladium atrum (Pers.) proved to be antagonistic to B. cinerea in some crops, reducing growth and sporulation of the pathogen by competition for nutrients and space, limiting the epidemic spread of B. cinerea on plants and within the crop.
The efficacy of U. atrum for biological control of grey mould in grapevine was assessed under controlled conditions and in field studies. The antagonist reduced the development of B. cinerea in vitro and on necrotic and healthy grapevine leaf material, respectively. U. atrum reduced spore production of the pathogen on mature grapevine berries as well as sporulation of sclerotia. Competition for nutrients and space proved to be the principal mode of action. The antagonist showed, similar to the pathogen, an ecological fitness persisting unfavourable climatic conditions under controlled conditions and in field experiments. Moreover, a low sensitivity of U. atrum to many pesticides enabled an integration of the antagonist into conventional crop protection measures. Direct combination with some pesticides as tank mixture resulted in a lower vitality of the antagonist and therefore reduced its efficacy. Nonetheless, alternating treatments with pesticides and the biocontrol agent are a potential strategy to enrich strategies of integrated crop protection.  
Large-scale experiments on biological control of grey mould by U. atrum were carried out in white grapes in 1997-99 in three German vine-growing areas. Three to four applications of the antagonist reduced B. cinerea effectively on plant tissue during the season and on berries at harvest. Furthermore, a reduced air-load of B. cinerea conidia was measured before vintage in 1997. This indicates that an effect of U. atrum could be enhanced when the antagonist is applied over a much larger area. The potential of this biocontrol agent was shown applied alone or combined with botryticides. In all three seasons with low to moderately high disease pressure, grey mould was reduced by U. atrum alike chemical botryticide treatments. Nonetheless, at a high disease pressure of grey mould, an integrated approach together with chemical control and biological control measures should be envisioned. Negative effects of U. atrum were observed neither on plants, inflorescences and berries nor on vinification. Hence, the antagonist provides a suitable biocontrol agent for grey mould in grapevine, and it can be used in both, biological and integrated crop protection.  },

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