Barth, Alexander: Vehicle Tracking and Motion Estimation Based on Stereo Vision Sequences. - Bonn, 2010. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
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author = {{Alexander Barth}},
title = {Vehicle Tracking and Motion Estimation Based on Stereo Vision Sequences},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2010,
month = dec,

volume = 35,
note = {In this dissertation, a novel approach for estimating trajectories of road vehicles such as cars, vans, or motorbikes, based on stereo image sequences is presented. Moving objects are detected and reliably tracked in real-time from within a moving car. The resulting information on the pose and motion state of other moving objects with respect to the own vehicle is an essential basis for future driver assistance and safety systems, e.g., for collision prediction.
The focus of this contribution is on oncoming traffic, while most existing work in the literature addresses tracking the lead vehicle. The overall approach is generic and scalable to a variety of traffic scenes including inner city, country road, and highway scenarios. A considerable part of this thesis addresses oncoming traffic at urban intersections.
The parameters to be estimated include the 3D position and orientation of an object relative to the ego-vehicle, as well as the object's shape, dimension, velocity, acceleration and the rotational velocity (yaw rate).
The key idea is to derive these parameters from a set of tracked 3D points on the object's surface, which are registered to a time-consistent object coordinate system, by means of an extended Kalman filter. Combining the rigid 3D point cloud model with the dynamic model of a vehicle is one main contribution of this thesis.
Vehicle tracking at intersections requires covering a wide range of different object dynamics, since vehicles can turn quickly. Three different approaches for tracking objects during highly dynamic turn maneuvers up to extreme maneuvers such as skidding are presented and compared. These approaches allow for an online adaptation of the filter parameter values, overcoming manual parameter tuning depending on the dynamics of the tracked object in the scene. This is the second main contribution.
Further issues include the introduction of two initialization methods, a robust outlier handling, a probabilistic approach for assigning new points to a tracked object, as well as mid-level fusion of the vision-based approach with a radar sensor.
The overall system is systematically evaluated both on simulated and real-world data. The experimental results show the proposed system is able to accurately estimate the object pose and motion parameters in a variety of challenging situations, including night scenes, quick turn maneuvers, and partial occlusions. The limits of the system are also carefully investigated.},

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