Delzeit, Ruth: Modelling Regional Maize Markets for Biogas Production in Germany : The Impact of Different Policy Options on Environment and Transport Emissions. - Bonn, 2011. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5N-23903
@phdthesis{handle:20.500.11811/4708,
urn: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5N-23903,
author = {{Ruth Delzeit}},
title = {Modelling Regional Maize Markets for Biogas Production in Germany : The Impact of Different Policy Options on Environment and Transport Emissions},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2011,
month = jan,

note = {The production of biogas is considered to be a promising candidate for a sustainable energy mix. Accordingly, Germany’s Renewable Energy Act (EEG) promotes electricity production from biogas along with other renewable energies. While overall benefits are seen in terms of climate protection and increased employment in rural areas, for example, biogas production (mainly from maize in Germany) also has the potential to create negative environmental effects on a regional scale. This can be caused by the production of monocultures and increasing transport volumes, to cite two prominent examples. To assess environmental effects arising from bioenergy policies, different types of agricultural models have been applied to determine the effects on competition for primary factors. Generally, these models do not however capture the demand side for crops with high transportation costs such as maize.
The production of biogas is considered to be a promising candidate for a sustainable energy mix. Accordingly, Germany’s Renewable Energy Act (EEG) promotes electricity production from biogas along with other renewable energies. While overall benefits are seen in terms of climate protection and increased employment in rural areas, for example, biogas production (mainly from maize in Germany) also has the potential to create negative environmental effects on a regional scale. This can be caused by the production of monocultures and increasing transport volumes, to cite two prominent examples. To assess environmental effects arising from bioenergy policies, different types of agricultural models have been applied to determine the effects on competition for primary factors. Generally, these models do not however capture the demand side for crops with high transportation costs such as maize.
Coupling ReSI-M with RAUMIS, a partial supply model which depicts German agriculture based on regionally differentiated processes, adds regional market clearing for a robust impact assessment of biogas production. As a result, policy implications on land use of different policy settings are analysed in this thesis. Furthermore, ReSI-M simulates regionally differing CO2 emissions from transports per kWhel (kilowatt hour electric), as well as the efficiency of subsidies for the policy scenarios.
The results show that adding maize demand to an assessment of land use changes improves the representation of regional maize markets since regional demand characteristics such as transport costs and availability of inputs are taken into account. Simulation results indicate that under a scenario adopting feed-in tariffs according to the EEG 2004, less land for maize cultivation per kWhel is used and also less transport emissions are caused compared to the EEG 2008 and the counterfactual scenario. Furthermore, results point out differences in regional maize markets under the applied scenarios: under the EEG 2008 scenario, maize production increases in regions with high livestock densities, which therewith further intensifies maize production in regions where the production level is already high. Applying the counterfactual scenario shows that production increases in regions with low transport costs. However, under the EEG 2008 the greatest amount of energy from biogas is produced and most subsidies per produced kWhel are paid. The efficiency of subsidies is best in the counterfactual scenario, in which feed-in tariffs are paid independent of plant size and technology. Against these results, the thesis concludes with policy recommendations and suggestions for further research. The work provides a tool for policymakers to evaluate distinct regional demand levels for maize and its environmental impacts while the work also contributes to an ongoing political debate of the benefits and drawbacks of bioenergy production.},

url = {http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11811/4708}
}

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