Roscher, Ribana: Sequential Learning Using Incremental Import Vector Machines for Semantic Segmentation. - Bonn, 2012. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
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author = {{Ribana Roscher}},
title = {Sequential Learning Using Incremental Import Vector Machines for Semantic Segmentation},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2012,
month = oct,

note = {We propose an innovative machine learning algorithm called incremental import vector machines that is used for classification purposes. The classifier is specifically designed for the task of sequential learning, in which the data samples are successively presented to the classifier.
The motivation for our work comes from the effort to formulate a classifier that can manage the major challenges of sequential learning problems, while being a powerful classifier in terms of classification accuracy, efficiency and meaningful output. One challenge of sequential learning is that data samples are not completely available to the learner at a given point of time and generally, waiting for a representative number of data is undesirable and impractical. Thus, in order to allow for a classification of given data samples at any time, the learning phase of the classifier model needs to start immediately, even if not all training samples are available. Another challenge is that the number of sequential arriving data samples can be very large or even infinite and thus, not all samples can be stored. Furthermore, the distribution of the sample can vary over time and the classifier model needs to remain stable and unchanged to irrelevant samples while being plastic to new, important samples.
Therefore our key contribution is to develop, analyze and evaluate a powerful incremental learner for sequential learning which we call incremental import vector machines (I2VMs). The classifier is based on the batch machine learning algorithm import vector machines, which was developed by Zhu and Hastie (2005). I2VM is a kernel-based, discriminative classifier and thus, is able to deal with complex data distributions. Additionally, the learner is sparse for an efficient training and testing and has a probabilistic output. A key achievement of this thesis is the verification and analysis of the discriminative and reconstructive model components of IVM and I2VM. While discriminative classifiers try to separate the classes as well as possible, classifiers with a reconstructive component aspire to have a high information content in order to approximate the distribution of the data samples. Both properties are necessary for a powerful incremental classifier. A further key achievement is the formulation of the incremental learning strategy of I2VM. The strategy deals with adding and removing data samples and the update of the current set of model parameters. Furthermore, also new classes and features can be incorporated. The learning strategy adapts the model continuously, while keeping it stable and efficient.
In our experiments we use I2VM for the semantic segmentation of images from an image database, for large area land cover classification of overlapping remote sensing images and for object tracking in image sequences. We show that I2VM results in superior or competitive classification accuracies to comparable classifiers. A substantial achievement of the thesis is that I2VM’s performance is independent of the ordering of the data samples and a reconsidering of already encountered samples for learning is not necessary. A further achievement is that I2VM is able to deal with very long data streams without a loss in the efficiency. Furthermore, as another achievement, we show that I2VM provide reliable posterior probabilities since samples with high class probabilities are accurately classified, whereas relatively low class probabilities are more likely referred to misclassified samples.},

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