Rahmat, Siti Rahyla: Global Value Chains and the Role of Innovation for Sustainable Palm Oil: An International Bioeconomy Analysis for Malaysia. - Bonn, 2016. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5n-42456
urn: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5n-42456,
author = {{Siti Rahyla Rahmat}},
title = {Global Value Chains and the Role of Innovation for Sustainable Palm Oil: An International Bioeconomy Analysis for Malaysia},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2016,
month = jan,

note = {Palm oil constitutes approximately one-third of the 130 million tonnes of major vegetable oils and fats consumed annually worldwide. The use of bio-based materials in palm oil production and the potential to achieve a zero-waste production process motivated this study of the potential of the Malaysian palm oil industry participating in sustainable bioeconomy. Thus, assessment of policies on chain upgrading and bioeconomy programme is discussed in this study. In order to assess the productivity and the efficiency of oil palm plantations, field research was conducted in two regions in Malaysia: Johor in Peninsular Malaysia as an example of a long-term production area and Sabah in Borneo, a newly established oil producing site.
A gross margin analysis was also conducted within a global value chain framework. The growers were disaggregated into three groups according to scale (smallholders, medium-sized growers, and large estates). In Johor, smallholders earned lower gross margins than large scale growers as a result of the long-term impacts of this industry. However, in Sabah, where the palm oil industry is a relatively recent development, there was an inverse relationship between farm size and income.
Thus, a cost benefit analysis (CBA) was applied to evaluate the opportunity and the external costs of producing palm oil. The CBA also considers environmental factors, such as land-use changes, carbon emissions from fertilisers, pesticides, transportation for oil palm fruits, and methane and carbon emissions from extraction mills (which have frequently drawn concerns from critics of palm oil). A 25-year period (the length of a commercial cycle of the palm oil industry) and real interest rate scenarios (1–8 %) were adopted for the analysis. Based on the findings, the most productive plantations under the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) scheme, which has been a key institutional actor in the development of the Malaysian palm oil industry, earned a Net Present Value of RM84,980 (US$26,776) per hectare, earning more than the less productive plantations under the same scheme (approximately 293% higher) in 2010. Moreover, the external costs of converting forests to oil palm plantations were higher than that of repurposing existing rubber or cocoa plantations for oil palm plantation (which also stores less carbon). Comparing the two study regions, it was found that the small- and large-scale growers in Johor (the pioneer region of the industry) performed better than their Sabahan counterparts (where the palm oil industry is a more recent development) in terms of net present value (NPV) per hectare. However, this was not the case for medium-sized growers. In addition, the mills in Johor also performed better than those in Sabah in terms of NPV per tonne.
To examine policy options that could be adopted to turn the Malaysian palm oil industry into a bioeconomy, two biofuel policies adopted by industrialised countries were reviewed, namely German rapeseed biodiesel and US corn ethanol policy. These international policies could serve as examples for the Malaysian government to improve their policy strategies for the Malaysian palm oil biofuel industry. The mixed experiences of the Malaysian policies for accelerating the development of the palm oil industry can be important lessons for other palm oil producing countries.},

url = {https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11811/6593}

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