Dehbi, Youness: Statistical relational learning of semantic models and grammar rules for 3D building reconstruction from 3D point clouds. - Bonn, 2016. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
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author = {{Youness Dehbi}},
title = {Statistical relational learning of semantic models and grammar rules for 3D building reconstruction from 3D point clouds},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2016,
month = nov,

note = {Formal grammars are well suited for the estimation of models with an a-priori unknown number of parameters such as buildings and have proven their worth for 3D modeling and reconstruction of cities. However, the generation and design of corresponding grammar rules is a laborious task and relies on expert knowledge. This thesis presents novel approaches for the reduction of this effort using advanced machine learning methods resulting in automatically learned sophisticated grammar rules. Indeed, the learning of a wide range of sophisticated rules, that reflect the variety and complexity, is a challenging task. This is especially the case if a simultaneous machine learning of building structures and the underlying aggregation hierarchies as well as the building parameters and the constraints among them for a semantic interpretation is expected. Thus, in this thesis, an incremental approach is followed. It separates the structure learning from the parameter distribution learning of building parts. Moreover, the so far procedural approaches with formal grammars are mostly rather convenient for the generation of virtual city models than for the reconstruction of existing buildings. To this end, Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) techniques are transferred and applied for the first time in the field of 3D building modeling. This enables the automatic learning of declarative logic programs, which are equivalent to attribute grammars and separate the representation of buildings and their parts from the reconstruction task. A stepwise bottom-up learning, starting from the smallest atomic features of a building part together with the semantic, topological and geometric constraints, is a key to a successful learning of a whole building part. Only few examples are sufficient to learn from precise as well as noisy observations. The learning from uncertain data is realized using probability density functions, decision trees and uncertain projective geometry. This enables the handling and modeling of uncertain topology and geometric reasoning taking noise into consideration. The uncertainty of models itself is also considered. Therefore, a novel method is developed for the learning of Weighted Attribute Context-Free Grammar (WACFG). On the one hand, the structure learning of façades – context-free part of the Grammar – is performed based on annotated derivation trees using specific Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The latter are able to derive probabilistic models from structured data and to predict a most likely tree regarding to given observations. On the other hand, to the best of my knowledge, Statistical Relational Learning (SRL), especially Markov Logic Networks (MLNs), are applied for the first time in order to learn building part (shape and location) parameters as well as the constraints among these parts. The use of SRL enables to take profit from the elegant logical relational description and to benefit from the efficiency of statistical inference methods. In order to model latent prior knowledge and exploit the architectural regularities of buildings, a novel method is developed for the automatic identification of translational as well as axial symmetries. For symmetry identification a supervised machine learning approach is followed based on an SVM classifier. Building upon the classification results, algorithms are designed for the representation of symmetries using context-free grammars from authoritative building footprints. In all steps the machine learning is performed based on real- world data such as 3D point clouds and building footprints. The handling with uncertainty and occlusions is assured. The presented methods have been successfully applied on real data. The belonging classification and reconstruction results are shown.},
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