Shumo, Marwa Abdel Hamid Ibrahim Hassan: Use of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) in bioconversion and feed production. - Bonn, 2020. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
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author = {{Marwa Abdel Hamid Ibrahim Hassan Shumo}},
title = {Use of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) in bioconversion and feed production},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2020,
month = feb,

note = {Population and economic growth, rapid urbanization and shifts in dietary preferences towards consuming more animal-derived products are some of the major challenges facing sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) today. Consequently, large amounts of urban waste are generated, with organic waste accounting for almost 80% of the total. However, urban organic waste, a rather valuable resource, is often disposed in municipal landfills due to the lack of adequate infrastructure. At the same time in the developing world there is frequently a lack of local and regional waste disposal management plans. While around one third of the food produced around the world each year is either lost or wasted, current agricultural production systems are failing to address the increasing demand on animalderived products, let alone feeding the ten billion people expected to live on our planet by the year 2050. Moreover, these production systems are often associated with unsustainable land and natural resource use and in addition contribute to climate change by emitting massive amounts of greenhouse gases (GHG).
Recently, insect species such as the Black Soldier Fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucens) have been recognized as innovative alternatives for the traditional protein sources used in the production of livestock feed due to their high nutritive value and the fact that they can feed on various organic waste streams. By employing a set of laboratory-based experiments, this dissertation, aims to explore the use of BSF as a tool in the bioconversion of urban organic waste streams and for the production of high-quality livestock feed within a developing world context. Specifically, this work seeks to assess the influence of commonly and readily available urban organic waste streams on the nutritive quality of BSF larvae (BSFL) reared on them. Therefore, in chapter two, a holistic comparison of the nutritive value of BSFL reared on three different organic substrates, i.e. chicken manure (CM), brewers’ spent grain (SG) and kitchen waste (KW) was conducted. The results of the comparison indicate that BSFL differed in terms of nutrient composition depending on the organic substrates they were reared on. Therefore, identifying organic waste streams of high nutritive content is crucial for the successful production of high quality BSFL-derived feed. Moreover, this work seeks to understand the compound influence of the rearing substrate and temperature. Therefore, in chapter three, a study on the influence of temperature on the development of BSFL reared on two different organic waste streams (SG and CD) was conducted. The results show that SG-fed BSFL were more efficient and tolerated a wider range of temperatures in comparison to the CD-fed ones. Hence there was an influence of both the rearing substrate and the temperature on the fitness of BSFL. Chapters two and three contribute to the knowledge needed in operating, standardizing and optimizing successful BSFL large scale production facilities in the developing world. The research in chapter 4 aims to provide an insight regarding the safety of BSFL reared on urban organic waste streams. Urban organic waste streams are environments where pathogens normally thrive. Therefore, understanding the influence of such streams on the microbial composition of the BSFL gut is needed when identifying safe rearing substrates or deciding suitable decontamination measures and treatments. Thus, research on selected bacterial species isolated from the gut of BSFL reared on KW and CM by using a culture-dependent molecular approach was conducted. The results highlight the potential influence of the rearing substrate on the gut microbial community of BSFL which show a high variability of bacterial species. Additionally, the results show the potential of BSFL to vertically transmit certain bacterial species. Overall, this dissertation confirms the possibility of taking advantage of the readily available urban organic waste streams in Nairobi, Kenya, and arguably elsewhere in the developing world, to produce nutrient-rich BSFL-derived feed. Future research should focus on the development of optimized technologies in terms of: (1) rearing conditions such as temperature, (2) feeding methods, and (3) substrate pre-treatment and decontamination techniques. Moreover, a unified regional legal framework should be developed in order to regulate the quality and ensure the implementation of adequate hygiene and safety measures in industrial mass production systems of insects for feed.},

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