Martin, Lisett Marie: Changes of inner teat morphology caused by the milking process and by incomplete milking during dry-off as assessed by innovative technologies. - Bonn, 2020. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
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author = {{Lisett Marie Martin}},
title = {Changes of inner teat morphology caused by the milking process and by incomplete milking during dry-off as assessed by innovative technologies},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2020,
month = mar,

note = {In dairy farming, the timing of the lactation cycle and the way of milk removal differ considerably from the natural conditions. Ensuring good health and wellbeing of farm animals is of great interest from both an economic and ethical point of view. Through the use of innovative technologies in this thesis, new insights into the effects of milking on the inner teat morphology as well as the effects of incomplete milking for gently preparing the mammary gland to dry-off were acquired.
By machine milking, the teat morphology is subject to modulating influences that may impede the local defense mechanisms of the teat canal. These internal effects were repeatably visualized and analyzed using high-resolution ultrasound technology (18 MHz). Focusing on the distal teat canal, three new traits of inner teat morphology were established, and associations with udder health-related and animal specific parameters were revealed.
In addition, a protocol for successive incomplete milking was established based on the development of an innovative milking software, by which the milking cluster is taken off, when a specified amount of milk is removed instead of the common practice that is based on reduced milk flow indicating the emptying of the udder. The new protocol allows for reducing the milk yield of dairy cows in order to prepare the animals for the dry period. The targeted performance depression was likewise as successful as the maintenance of good udder health conditions in cows that were identified as healthy before beginning of the experiment (somatic cell counts < 100.000 cells/mL without bacteriological findings in each quarter milk). The expected early induction of involution by the long-term retention of residual milk in the udder was confirmed by increased concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin in skim milk. Internal teat morphology was also assessed by high-resolution ultrasound in this trial. As expected, significantly less changes in the morphological traits could be verified when milking with the early induced cluster take-off.
The present thesis contributes to a better assessment of the effects of the milking process on teat tissue and, in addition, presents a novel way to prepare healthy dairy cows in an animal friendly and gradual manner for the critical management phase at the end of lactation end, by application of innovative technologies.},

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