Höns, Robin: Estimation of Distribution Algorithms and Minimum Relative Entropy. - Bonn, 2006. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5N-07741
urn: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5N-07741,
author = {{Robin Höns}},
title = {Estimation of Distribution Algorithms and Minimum Relative Entropy},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2006,
note = {In the field of optimization using probabilistic models of the search space, this thesis identifies and elaborates several advancements in which the principles of maximum entropy and minimum relative entropy from information theory are used to estimate a probability distribution.
The probability distribution within the search space is represented by a graphical model (factorization, Bayesian network or junction tree). An estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA) is an evolutionary optimization algorithm which uses a graphical model to sample a population within the search space and then estimates a new graphical model from the selected individuals of the population.
- So far, the Factorized Distribution Algorithm (FDA) builds a factorization or Bayesian network from a given additive structure of the objective function to be optimized using a greedy algorithm which only considers a subset of the variable dependencies. Important connections can be lost by this method. This thesis presents a heuristic subfunction merge algorithm which is able to consider all dependencies between the variables (as long as the marginal distributions of the model do not become too large).
On a 2-D grid structure, this algorithm builds a pentavariate factorization which allows to solve the deceptive grid benchmark problem with a much smaller population size than the conventional factorization. Especially for small population sizes, calculating large marginal distributions from smaller ones using Maximum Entropy and iterative proportional fitting leads to a further improvement.
- The second topic is the generalization of graphical models to loopy structures. Using the Bethe-Kikuchi approximation, the loopy graphical model (region graph) can learn the Boltzmann distribution of an objective function by a generalized belief propagation algorithm (GBP). It minimizes the free energy, a notion adopted from statistical physics which is equivalent to the relative entropy to the Boltzmann distribution.
Previous attempts to combine the Kikuchi approximation with EDA have relied on an expensive Gibbs sampling procedure for generating a population from this loopy probabilistic model. In this thesis a combination with a factorization is presented which allows more efficient sampling. The free energy is generalized to incorporate the inverse temperature ß. The factorization building algorithm mentioned above can be employed here, too.
The dynamics of GBP is investigated, and the method is applied on Ising spin glass ground state search. Small instances (7 x 7) are solved without difficulty. Larger instances (10 x 10 and 15 x 15) do not converge to the true optimum with large ß, but sampling from the factorization can find the optimum with about 1000-10000 sampling attempts, depending on the instance. If GBP does not converge, it can be replaced by a concave-convex procedure which guarantees convergence.
- Third, if no probabilistic structure is given for the objective function, a Bayesian network can be learned to capture the dependencies in the population. The relative entropy between the population-induced distribution and the Bayesian network distribution is equivalent to the log-likelihood of the model. The log-likelihood has been generalized to the BIC/MDL score which reduces overfitting by punishing complicated structure of the Bayesian network. A previous information theoretic analysis of BIC/MDL in the context of EDA is continued, and empiric evidence is given that the method is able to learn the correct structure of an objective function, given a sufficiently large population.
- Finally, a way to reduce the search space of EDA is presented by combining it with a local search heuristics. The Kernighan Lin hillclimber, known originally for the traveling salesman problem and graph bipartitioning, is generalized to arbitrary binary problems. It can be applied in a stand-alone manner, as an iterative 1+1 search algorithm, or combined with EDA. On the MAXSAT problem it performs in a similar scale to the specialized SAT solver Walksat. An analysis of the Kernighan Lin local optima indicates that the combination with an EDA is favorable.
The thesis shows how evolutionary optimization can be improved using interdisciplinary results from information theory, statistics, probability calculus and statistical physics. The principles of information theory for estimating probability distributions are applicable in many areas. EDAs are a good application because an improved estimation affects directly the optimization success.},

url = {https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11811/2620}

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