Wünscher, Tobias: Spatial Targeting of Payments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica : A Site Selection Tool for Increasing Conservation Benefits. - Bonn, 2009. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5N-18022
urn: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5N-18022,
author = {{Tobias Wünscher}},
title = {Spatial Targeting of Payments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica : A Site Selection Tool for Increasing Conservation Benefits},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2009,
month = jun,

note = {Payments for environmental services (PES) have become an increasingly popular market-based instrument to translate external, non-market environmental services into financial incentives for landowners to preserve the ecosystems that provide the services. However, lack of spatial differentiation in the targeting mechanism may lead to potential efficiency losses. Addressing this challenge, a formal site selection tool was constructed, which takes into account three variables that vary in space: environmental services, risks of losing services, and participation costs. Using data from Costa Rica’s Nicoya Peninsula, the tool’s potential to increase the financial efficiency of Costa Rica’s PES program is empirically tested. Results show that, given a fixed budget, efficiency increases radically if per hectare payments are aligned to landowners’ heterogeneity in participation costs. Selecting sites based on environmental service potential also moderately increases efficiency. Overall additionality could in the best case be doubled but is generally limited due to low deforestation risks. To take advantage of the efficiency potentials of cost-aligned payments, cost-effective methods for the determination of participation costs would be necessary. Two possible approaches were tested deriving costs from annual land rents, and regressing easy-to-obtain and difficult-to-manipulate variables as proxies on per hectare returns. None of the approaches appeared to predict costs sufficiently well. The results raised doubts about the plausibility of the original cost estimates that were used in the targeting tool. Further tests, however, confirmed their plausibility. Considering the difficulty to determine micro-level monetary participation costs it was questioned whether estimates that are based on monetary flows in the past (as used here) and do not consider personal land holder characteristics are sufficient to explain a land holder’s decision to enroll land in PES. Factors such as personal risk considerations and information access were hypothesized to be necessary to obtain a better estimate of expected participation costs. In addition, non-monetary values such as personal preferences may influence land use decisions. To test these assumptions, a PES adoption model was developed for hypothetical adoption decisions that interviewees made in a field survey. The model confirmed the importance of risk and information issues in explaining PES adoption. Proxies for non-monetary preferences, however, could not be shown to significantly explain decision making. In order to determine micro-level payment levels that land holders are willing to accept, inverse auction systems are proposed here as a potentially cost-effective practical approach for PES programs with flexible payment levels. In inverse auctions, all adoption determinants are potentially expressed in the land holder’s bid.},
url = {https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11811/3952}

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