Mubea, Kenneth Wagia: Scenarios of Urban Growth in Kenya Using Regionalised Cellular Automata based on Multi temporal Landsat Satellite Data. - Bonn, 2014. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc:
author = {{Kenneth Wagia Mubea}},
title = {Scenarios of Urban Growth in Kenya Using Regionalised Cellular Automata based on Multi temporal Landsat Satellite Data},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2014,
month = apr,

note = {The exponential increase of urban areas in Africa during the last decade has become a major concern in the context of local climatic change and the increasing amount of impervious surface. Major African cities such as Nairobi and Nakuru have undergone rapid urban growth in comparison to the rest of the world. In this research we investigated the land-use changes and used the results in urban growth modelling which integrates cellular automata (CA), remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) in order to simulate urban growth up to the year 2030.
We used multi-temporal Landsat imageries for the years 1986, 2000 and 2010 to map urban land-use changes in Nairobi and Nakuru. The use of multi-sensor imageries was also explored incorporating World view 2, and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data for urban land-use mapping in Nakuru. We conducted supervised classification using support vector machine (SVM) which performed better than maximum likelihood classification. Land-use change estimates were obtained indicating increased urban growth into the year 2010.
We used the land-use change analysis information to model urban growth in Nairobi and Nakuru. Our urban growth model (UGM) utilised various datasets in modelling urban growth namely urban land-use extracted from land-use maps, road network data, slope data and exclusion layer defining areas excluded from development. The Monte-Carlo technique was used in model calibration. The model was validated using Multiple Resolution Validation (MRV) technique. Prediction of urban land-use was done up to the year 2030 when Kenya plans to attain Vision 2030. Three scenarios were explored in the urban modelling process; unmanaged growth with no restriction on environmental areas, managed growth with moderate protection, and a managed growth with maximum protection on forest, agricultural areas, and urban green.
Furthermore, we explored the spatial effects of varying UGM parameters using the city of Nairobi. The objective here was to investigate the contribution of each model parameter in simulating urban growth. The results obtained indicate that varying model coefficients leads to urban growth in different directions and magnitude. However, several model parameters were observed to be highly correlated namely; spread, breed and road. The lowest spatial effect was achieved by at least maintaining spread, breed and road while varying the other parameters. The highest spatial effect was observed by at least keeping slope constant while varying the other four parameters. Additionally, we used kappa statistics to compare the simulation maps. High values of Khisto indicated high similarity between the maps in terms of quantity and location thus indicating the lowest spatial effect obtained.
Kenya plans to achieve Vision 2030 in the year 2030 and information on spatial effects of our UGM can help in identifying different scenarios of future urban growth. It is thus possible to discover areas that are likely to experience; spontaneous growth, edge growth, road influenced growth or new spreading centres growth. Policy makers can see the influence of establishing new infrastructure such as housing and road in new areas compared to existing settlements.
Moreover, the outcome of this research indicates that Nairobi and Nakuru are experiencing fast urban sprawl with urban land-use consuming the available land. The results obtained illustrate the possibility of urban growth modelling in addressing regional planning issues. This can help in comprehensive land-use planning and an integrated management of resources to ensure sustainability of land and to achieve social equity, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. Hence, cellular automata are a worthwhile approach for regional modelling of African cities such as Nairobi and Nakuru. This provides opportunities for other cities in Africa to be studied using UGM and its adaptability noted accordingly.},

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