Kyere, Vincent Nartey: Environmental and Health Impacts of Informal E-waste Recycling in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana: Recommendations for Sustainable Management. - Bonn, 2016. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc:
author = {{Vincent Nartey Kyere}},
title = {Environmental and Health Impacts of Informal E-waste Recycling in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana: Recommendations for Sustainable Management},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2016,
month = apr,

note = {E-waste describes electrical and electronic equipment or parts of it that have been discarded by the owner without any intention of reuse. The annual global volumes of e-waste are rapidly increasing. In Ghana, the increasing quantities of e-waste have created avenue where the recovery of inherently valuable fractions from e-waste is performed by a dominating informal recycling sector using crude and primitive recycling procedures which pollute soil, water and the atmosphere with consequent threats to human health and the environment. This study examines the factors affecting current e-waste management in Ghana, the level and spatial extent of heavy metal pollution and contamination at the Agbogbloshie (AEPS) e-waste processing site in Accra, the ecological risks the metals pose, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk of these heavy metals to children under six years, the possible loss of critical raw metals and the possibilities to mainstream the recycling activities of the informal sector. Methods used were experimental elemental analysis of nine heavy metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn), field observations and interviews using structured questionnaires. The review of e-waste management and existing legislation in Ghana showed a lack of e-waste-specific legislation, inadequate infrastructure, lack of skills and human capacity, and low public awareness and education as factors affecting e-waste management in the country. The analysis of the selected heavy metals revealed that the concentrations at the AEPS exceeded the regulatory limits of both Dutch and Canadian Soil Quality and Guidance Values and that contamination extended beyond the main burning and dismantling sites of the informal recyclers to the school, residential, recreational, clinic, farm and worship areas. For five out of nine heavy metals, geostatistical analysis reveals normal distribution, spatial variability and spatial autocorrelation using the Moran index at a Z-score greater that 1.6 at p-value less than 0.05. The health risk assessment using the hazard index for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements indicates that Cr, Cu and Pb with a hazard index above the 0.1 threshold of unacceptable limit pose significant health risks (neurological and developmental disorders) to children under six years. It can be concluded that an appropriate mix of legislation, infrastructure, and local and international collaboration, together with the ability to enforce and ensure the mainstreaming and integration of the informal recyclers could help minimize the environmental and health risks and loss of critical rare earth metals from e-waste processing in Ghana.},
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