Cremer, Pascal: Algorithms for Cell Layout. - Bonn, 2019. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc:
author = {{Pascal Cremer}},
title = {Algorithms for Cell Layout},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2019,
month = apr,

note = {Cell layout is a critical step in the design process of computer chips. A cell is a logic function or storage element implemented in CMOS technology by transistors connected with wires. As each cell is used many times on a chip, improvements of a single cell layout can have a large effect on the overall chip performance. In the past years increasing difficulty to manufacture small feature sizes has lead to growing complexity of design rules. Producing cell layouts which are compliant with design rules and at the same time optimized w.r.t. layout size has become a difficult task for human experts.
In this thesis we present BonnCell, a cell layout generator which is able to fully automatically produce design rule compliant layouts. It is able to guarantee area minimality of its layouts for small and medium sized cells. For large cells it uses a heuristic which produces layouts with a significant area reduction compared to those created manually.
The routing problem is based on the Vertex Disjoint Steiner Tree Packing Problem with a large number of additional design rules. In Chapter 4 we present the routing algorithm which is based on a mixed integer programming (MIP) formulation that guarantees compliance with all design rules. The algorithm can also handle instances in which only part of the transistors are placed to check whether this partial placement can be extended to a routable placement of all transistors.
Chapter 5 contains the transistor placement algorithm. Based on a branch and bound approach, it places transistors in turn and achieves efficiency by pruning parts of the search tree which do not contain optimum solutions. One major contribution of this thesis is that BonnCell only outputs routable placements. Simply checking the routability for each full placement in the search tree is too slow in practice, therefore several speedup strategies are applied.
Some cells are too large to be solved by a single call of the placement algorithm. In Chapter 7 we describe how these cells are split up into smaller subcells which are placed and routed individually and subsequently merged into a placement and routing of the original cell. Two approaches for dividing the original cell into subcells are presented, one based on estimating the subcell area and the other based on solving the Min Cut Linear Arrangement Problem.
BonnCell has enabled our cooperation partner IBM to drastically improve their cell design and layout process. In particular, a team of human experts needed several weeks to find a layout for their largest cell, consisting of 128 transistors. BonnCell processed this cell without manual intervention in 3 days and its layout uses 15% less area than the layout found by the human experts.},

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