Adong, Annet: Armed Conflicts and Forced Displacements: Incentives and Consequences on Consumption and Social Preferences. - Bonn, 2021. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
Online-Ausgabe in bonndoc: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5-61847
@phdthesis{handle:20.500.11811/9022,
urn: https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:hbz:5-61847,
author = {{Annet Adong}},
title = {Armed Conflicts and Forced Displacements: Incentives and Consequences on Consumption and Social Preferences},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2021,
month = apr,

note = {Several countries currently have ongoing armed conflicts or are in post-conflict. Relatedly, the number of refugees has almost doubled in the last decade from continued armed conflicts with an increasing influx to countries like Uganda. This thesis examines armed conflicts and forced displacements with four specific objectives: (1) attempts to explore the incentives and disincentives of armed conflicts in the Great Lake Regions, (2) to assess the consequences of armed conflict on consumption and consumption pathways in post-conflict (3) to examine prosocial attitudes between hosts and refugees and to identify any discrimination (4) to evaluate the role of social preferences in informal contractual land arrangements between refugees and hosts. Informal contractual land arrangements offer an alternative sustainable and innovative way by which refugees can acquire land to be self-reliant. The thesis uses case study reviews, panel data methods, and lab in the field experiments. It focuses on the post-conflict Northern region of Uganda and Adjumani district that has a massive influx of refugees.
We find that armed conflicts in the Great Lake Regions are driven by several factors stemming from grievances from ethnic and religious differences and orchestrated by autocratic political systems. With three measures of household conflict exposure, this thesis finds that food consumption was significantly less by a range of between 21 to 30 percent for affected households three years after the cessation of hostilities compared to the level at the time of the conflict. As the threat of insecurity reduces, affected families rely less on consumption from market purchases and transfers and more on their own food production. Further, this thesis finds no evidence of refugees making discriminatory social differentiation of "us refugees" and "them host" in their interactions with hosts, particularly in areas remote from urban areas. They are more trustworthy towards hosts than to fellow refugees in remote areas. We find that refugees located more than 10km from district headquarters reciprocate the trust and are more generous to hosts than to fellow refugees by 8 and 15 percentage points, respectively, in the behavioral experiments. Hosts trust fellow hosts more than refugees, by a 10 percentage point difference. However, hosts located 10km or more from the center trust refugees more than they trust fellow hosts (22 percentage point difference). In remote areas, we think that high transaction costs of travel confines refugees and hosts to a smaller radius, allowing for meaningful interactions between them. Lastly, the results show that trust plays a significant role in determining the hosts' willingness to engage in informal land arrangements with refugees. At least 4 in 10 of both refugees and hosts are willing to enter into such an agreement. The host's trust is associated with a 20 percent increased willingness to participate in informal land transactions.
The study concludes with the following policy implications. First, governments in the Great Lake regions can avoid the reoccurrence of armed conflict by paying attention and addressing factors that have motivated past conflicts like grievances from high inequality and lack of political rights. Second, food assistance programs should be targeted at households directly affected by armed conflict, emphasizing fostering own food production after an armed conflict. Third, to minimize discrimination by hosts and boost refugee integration, the study suggests creating opportunities for meaningful refugee and host interactions such as community groups, sports activities, and religious worship. Finally, refugees' self-reliance can be enhanced by taking measures to build trust and leverage on existing behavioral attributes of hosts to promote informal land arrangements amidst costly Government land provision to refugees.},

url = {http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11811/9022}
}

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