Link, Martin: Exploring Non-Equilibrium in Ultracold Fermi Gases and Machine Learning in Physics. - Bonn, 2021. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
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author = {{Martin Link}},
title = {Exploring Non-Equilibrium in Ultracold Fermi Gases and Machine Learning in Physics},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2021,
month = may,

note = {This thesis covers two fields of research carried out in the context of ultracold Fermi gases: Non-equilibrium physics in the BEC-BCS crossover and the use of machine learning methods in physics.
The BEC-BCS crossover is of particular interest for the investigation of low-temperature superconductivity and related many-body phenomena. We realise the BEC-BCS crossover experimentally by cooling a mixture of two hyperfine states of fermionic lithium atoms far below degeneracy. To tune the interaction between the constituents, we make use of a broad magnetic Feshbach resonance between the states. We achieve temperatures far in the degenerate regime that can be tuned by a trap release heating procedure. Being able to tune temperature and interaction allows us to access the whole BEC-BCS crossover regime and investigate related phenomena.
One key quantity across the crossover is the critical temperature of the thermal to superfluid phase transition that signals condensation of pairs. The critical temperature can be calculated in the limits of weak interactions, however, for strong interactions theoretical treatment is difficult. In this thesis, we use neural networks to explore the critical temperature in the whole crossover regime with unprecedented accuracy. We show that a supervisedly trained neural network can not only detect the critical temperature, but also distinguish between Cooper pairs and Feshbach molecules, which was not possible before. Moreover, we show that an unsupervisedly trained autoencoder network is able to determine the critical temperature without any external input other than time-of-flight pictures.
Another important quantity in the crossover regime is the superfluid gap parameter. We measure the gap by exciting the Higgs mode through radio-frequency modulation of the atom population. In the BCS limit, the frequency of the Higgs mode is given by twice the gap frequency. By observing the frequency dependent response of the system we can therefore measure the gap parameter. Towards strong interactions, the observed feature broadens, signalling an instability of the mode due to the gradual violation of the required particle-hole symmetry.
Exploring the non-equilibrium behaviour of a Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover might hold the key to understand the formation dynamics of pairs and how to induce superconductivity in a system that does not exhibit superconductivity in its equilibrium state. In this work, we present two ways to expose the system to a sudden change of interaction, resulting in a non-equilibrium response. Firstly, we use a fast radio-frequency transfer of one of the hyperfine states into a different, third state. We observe dynamics on several timescales in the momentum distribution and condensate fraction. Secondly, we develop a new coil system that is able to change the magnetic field at the atom position by tens of Gauss within a few microseconds. We detail the construction, testing and alignment process and present investigations into the long-time response of the system.
Machine learning procedures can not only be used for data analysis, but also to improve upon the control over experimental systems. In this work we present a novel approach to improve the detection and correction of experimental errors exponentially. We use two machine learning approaches, principal component analysis and small, fully connected neural networks to create an empirical model of the experimental setup. Using this model allows us to reduce the required amount of data for compensation of noise sources exponentially. We demonstrate both approaches in the context of micromotion compensation on a single trapped ytterbium ion in a radio-frequency Paul trap.},

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