Demissie Tegegne, Sewmehon: Livestock Water Productivity (LWP) improvement in the mixed croplivestock system of Ethiopian Highlands, Amhara Region : a gendered sustainable livelihood approach to target LWP interventions for rural poverty reduction. - Bonn, 2012. - Dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
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author = {{Sewmehon Demissie Tegegne}},
title = {Livestock Water Productivity (LWP) improvement in the mixed croplivestock system of Ethiopian Highlands, Amhara Region : a gendered sustainable livelihood approach to target LWP interventions for rural poverty reduction},
school = {Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn},
year = 2012,
month = jan,

note = {Water is vital for live as such including a wide range of livelihood activities including domestic and productive needs. Access to adequate water supply would significantly contribute to poverty alleviation, whereas lack of sufficient and reliable water will trigger poverty. In mixed crop-livestock systems, livestock is an integral part of the system and a basic asset for rural livelihoods. Water is an essential input for crop and livestock production in these systems. However, water scarcity is the day to day experience of many rural livelihoods, which, among other factors, is caused by mismanagement in livestock keeping, climate change and increasing demand pressure. Therefore, appropriate and targeted intervention in the water sector is of paramount importance to address such problems related to rural poverty and thereby bring about economic, social and environmental improvements. This could be through improving water availability and its use efficiency and integration with livestock management. In this connection, improving Livestock Water Productivity (LWP) through the Multiple Use Service (MUS) approach can considerably contribute such improvements. The study examines LWP from gendered livelihood perspectives in order to fill the social-ecological as well as culturally linked gap of the LWP framework, which in general and up to now mainly reflects the biophysical aspect.
The empirically based study was carried out at two exemplary sites (Kuhar Michael Kebele and Lenche Dima Watershed) in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected between June 2008 and February 2010. A participatory gendered livelihood and poverty analysis was made using the Gendered Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (GSLF on the theoretical side) and PRA as the methodological equivalent. Multiple use technology options were identified and targeted in an effort to suggest better ways to improve productivity, livelihoods with emphasis on women headed households, environmental wellbeing and to ultimately alleviate poverty. The study also explores socio-economic and institutional gaps and solution options. In order to link technological options with socio-economic and institutional interventions, targets for LWP improvement programs are identified and characterized.
The findings of the comparative analysis reflect the common knowledge of necessary targeted approaches and indicate distinct livelihood wellbeing characteristics with respect to poverty status and access to resources. Poor households, especially women-headed households and young farmers’ households are found to be a suitable target group for LWP improvement programs. Nonetheless, a number of challenges are identified in relation to the implementation of such programs. Access to and ownership of basic resources like livestock, the capability both in financial as well as technical terms, government and non-government institutions, and last but not least, cultural preferences and perceptions are among the major limitations. On the other hand, absence of appropriate, cost-effective, and labor-saving technologies in relation to water and feed access, improper targeting of participants in livestock and water development programs, poor integration of diversified productive livelihood activities by households, limited awareness of the community with respect to the different services provided by governmental and non-governmental institutions are the other barriers identified in connection with keeping livestock and investing in LWP improvement programs for the poor farmers in general at the community level.
In recognition of the aforementioned challenges and limitations, it is vital for the target groups to have access to multifunctional animals to be watered in sufficient ways. Likewise, intervening in improving awareness, resource access like livestock inputs, technical support for diversified livestock and water-related activities, and improving institutional networks at both local and communal levels are necessary to improve the livelihoods of the poor and marginalized groups. Generally, an integrated and well targeted approach needs to be exercised in order to effectively implement LWP programs and successfully achieve the intended objectives.},

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